These are the oldest Roman arches, being older than the Cloaca of Tarquin or the arches of Ancus Martius.
The paved arch over the stream is in good preservation, and is older than the Cloaca Maxima, but not so well known.
The additional branch of the Cloaca made by Agrippa to carry off the water from his thermae near the Pantheon (to supply which the Aqua Virgo was made), is of brick, after the fashion of his time.
This drain is of the same construction as the Cloaca Maxima, and comes from beyond the other chambers, mentioned below, with which it also communicates.
The iron door is the opening of a sewer leading into the Cloaca Maxima, by which means the dead bodies, &c.
At the left-hand corner of the Vicus Tuscus and the Via Sacra, a brick pedestal marks the site of the Shrine of Venus Cloacina, erected in commemoration of Tarquin making the Cloaca Maxima.
The Cloaca Maxima has been diverted into the Tiber below S.
The Cloaca Maxima, or Great Sewer, was built during the reign of the second Tarquin,--the grandest monument of the reign of the kings.
Its application dates back to the Cloaca Maxima, and may have been of Etrurian invention.
The famous arched drain at Rome, known as the Cloaca Maxima, so constantly referred to as the greatest masterpiece of the Etruscans was not, it has now been proved, built until after their subjugation and extinction as a nation.
Fence in the flood, as the elder Tarquin fenced it in beside the mouth of the cloaca maxima; make a strong wall of defence against the waters, and the remains which are left of Ostia may abide as long as the cloaca maxima itself.
The vault of the Cloaca Maxima in Rome dates from the sixth century B.
Cloaca Maxima, that the first work of this kind, the Aqua Appia, was completed, simultaneously with the first great military road, by the famous censor Appius Claudius Caecus.
It is therefore not improbable that the great canal discovered by Dennis, which once drained the swampy Valley of the Marta, preceded the Cloaca Maxima, and, indeed, antedated the Roman period altogether.
From the royal period dates one of the most important monuments of vaulted construction, the Cloaca Maxima of Rome, built in the reign of Tarquinius Superbus, and probably under the direction of engineers from his native Etruria.
In Teleostomes the cloaca is commonly flattened out, so that the kidney ducts and the alimentary canal come to open independently on the outer surface.
The creation of the Cloaca Maxima had probably done much towards draining, but some fragments of the marsh remained to a late period.
The alley is closed by an arch of the celebrated Cloaca Maxima, the famous drain formed by Tarquinius Priscus, fifth king of Rome, to dry the marshy land of the Velabrum.
Strabo tells that the tunnel of the Cloaca was of sufficient height to admit a waggon laden with hay, but this probably supposes the water at its lowest.
The epithelium of the cloaca is, of course, simply a continuation of that of the surface of the body, somewhat thickened, perhaps, in the deeper regions.
From the ventral wall of the large intestine, at a point about one-third the distance from the cloaca to the caecum, projects ventrad and cephalad the stalk of the allantois, al.
Figure 5H represents a section through the cloacal region, cl, showing the openings into the cloaca of the Wolffian ducts, wdo.
In this embryo the cloaca has no actual opening to the exterior; the walls of the part that projects towards the exterior are in close contact, except in the region of the openings of the Wolffian ducts, as is shown in figure 5H.
Just anterior to these openings the cloaca opens ventrally into a small, anteriorly-projecting pouch, the rudiment of the allantois.
A judge of all things, feeble worm of the earth, depositary of the truth, cloaca of uncertainty and error, the glory and the shame of the universe!
A judge of all things, feeble worm of the earth, depositary of the truth, cloaca of uncertainty and error, the glory and the shame of the universe.
The oldest monument of Roman masonry is the remaining portion of a cloaca in this district, commonly identified with the Cloaca Maxima of Livy, which reaches from a spot near the church of S.
This drain probably communicated with the great cloaca built by Agrippa to drain the Campus Martius.
That the principle of the arch was known in the regal period of Rome is shown by the great arch of the Cloaca Maxima.
If the Italian engineers could construct the Cloaca Maxima they would be fully equal to the task of tapping the Alban lake.
Aemilian Temple of Hercules, and mouth of Cloaca Maxima.
Near the Janus Quadrifrons, at the above-mentioned spot, seven cloacae unite and pour their waters into the still extant portion of the Cloaca Maxima, so that a large stream is constantly flowing through it.
Under the southern end of the floor of the Julian Basilica, an opening has been made in which the arch of the main cloaca of the Forum valley can be seen passing across the Forum towards the Subura.
The greater part of the Cloaca Maxima, and the remnants of these Servian walls, are composed of this material.
There is however, as has been pointed out by Koelliker, a well-marked postanal gut continued as a narrow tube from behind the cloaca into the tail both in the Bird (fig.
In the Sauropsida and Mammalia the cloaca appears as a dilatation of the mesenteron, which receives the opening of the allantois almost as soon as the posterior part of the mesenteron is established.
Still later the allantois grows forward, and becomes a large spherical vesicle, still however remaining connected with the cloaca by a narrow canal which forms its neck or stalk (fig.
The urinogenital cloaca is formed by the separation of the portion of the primitive cloaca containing the openings of the segmental ducts from that connected with the alimentary tract.
At a point not far from the cloaca it becomes smaller, and its diameter falls to .
In Mammalia the dorsal part of the cloaca with the alimentary tract becomes first of all partially constricted off from the ventral, which then forms a urinogenital sinus (fig.
This cloaca also communicates by two apertures (abdominal pores) with the body cavity.
The Muellerian duct finally reaches the cloaca though it does not in the female for a long time open into it, and in the male never does so.
Shortly before the metamorphosis the portion of the cloaca into which the segmental tubes open becomes separated off as a distinct urinogenital sinus, the walls of which become perforated by the two abdominal pores.
In all the Amniota, there open at first into the common cloaca the alimentary canal dorsally, the allantois ventrally, and the Wolffian and Muellerian ducts and ureters laterally.
The hypoblastic section of the cloaca of birds, which receives the openings of the urinogenital ducts, is permanently marked off by a fold from the epiblastic section or true proctodaeum, with which the bursa Fabricii communicates.
The generative products are carried into the cloaca by these pores; so that their transportation outwards is not performed by any part of the primitive urinary system.
It is in the cloaca also that the Clythra and the Cryptocephalus produce the elegant armour of their eggs.
The egg, entering the cloaca in a soft and utterly naked state, receives an artistic coat of the intestinal dross, even as the Hen's egg is covered by a shell formed of the chalky secretions.
The Etruscans were the first vault-builders, and the Cloaca Maxima, the great sewer of Republican Rome (about 500 B.
The most important, which drained the forum, is known as the Cloaca Maxima and dates from the 6th century B.
Nothing surely can be more grotesque than the idea of a set of wolves, like the Norse pirates before their conversion to Christianity, constructing in their den the Cloaca Maxima.
This is proved by the works of the kings, the Capitoline Temple, the excavation for the Circus Maximus, the Servian Wall, and above all the Cloaca Maxima.
But the Cloaca Maxima is in itself conclusive evidence of a large population, of wealth, and of a not inconsiderable degree of civilization.
O my friends, I clearly perceive this horriblecloaca of Pauperism, wearing nearly bottomless now, is the point where we must begin.
So soon as the State attacks that tremendouscloaca of Pauperism, which will choke the world if it be not attacked, the State will find its real functions very different indeed from what it had long supposed them!
A large tract of marshy ground between the Palatine and Capitoline hills was drained by means of the Cloaca Maxima, the "Great Sewer," which was so admirably constructed that it has been preserved to the present day.
The Cloaca Maxima in Rome, during thirty centuries scarcely carried more filth than is here besieging, storming the departments, all the administrative issues, and all the so-called political issues.
By degrees the cloaca is retracted towards the ureters, and then originates a cloaca, which is both urethra and urinary cyst, as in Birds.
In Reptiles also there is a cloaca or sexual orifice, into which all the sexual apertures meet together.
The cloaca of the Bird is an urinary cyst, into which the anus opens.
The pharynx of Fishes, as being surrounded by the branchial arches, is at once pharynx and larynx, like as in many animals cloaca and urinary cyst are of one and the same kind.
The orifice of thecloaca is properly that of the urethra; ova and fæces are moistened with urine.
The well-known arch over the Cloaca Maxima at Rome (Fig.
The ureters leave the hind ends of the kidneys, and open through the side-walls of the cloaca on a papilla which in the males contains also the opening of the vas deferens.
The vas deferens is closely folded proximally, and runs along the outer side of the kidney into the cloaca close to the ureter.
The Cloaca Maxima was built during the reign of the second Tarquin--the grandest monument of the reign of the kings.