The chief medicines of this order are as follow: Alkaloidsand neutral principles.
Thus it is conceivable that this and similar alkaloids may at the same time supply an important material to the blood, and serve as fuel to support the animal heat, by combining with oxygen and giving off Carbonic acid.
Perhaps Cusparia bark comes nearest to the Cinchona alkaloids in its anti-periodic action.
Most of these are Diuretic; as are the Vegetable Acids, and the Alkaloids of Digitalis, Tobacco, and Colchicum.
For though the alkaloidsthemselves are in general almost insoluble in water, yet their natural salts which occur in the vegetable kingdom are mostly very soluble.
The chief alkaloids in opium are codein, narcotin, heroin, and morphin, the most active being heroin.
But we know that animal alkaloids always develop either as a result of decay of food or of the decay of the body itself.
Mr. Mole was, however, so satisfied with his physiological tests that he declared himself ready to detect the deadly alkaloids under whatever circumstances they might be administered.
Mr. Mole found plenty of food for discussion and investigation in the mushroom question, and Sones had worked at little else of late than the isolation of the alkaloids in fungi.
He laboured, therefore, long and anxiously to find some reagent or means of detecting the presence of the different alkaloids he had discovered which were capable of causing death in the human species; but hitherto without success.
Is it not self-evident that in a digestive tract filled most of the time with large masses of partially digested and decaying animal food enormous quantities of alkaloids of putrefaction are created?
Ross obtained these "alkaloids of putrefaction," as he called them, from blood which had been allowed to putrefy in a warm place.
Alkaloids of putrefaction are constantly produced in every animal and human body.
They do this by overcoming and paralyzing the power of the blood to dissolve and carry in solution uric acid and other acids and alkaloids that should be eliminated from the organism.
These, together with xanthines, poisonous alkaloids and ptomaines, are formed during the processes of protein and starch digestion and in the breaking down and decay of cells and tissues.
Every piece of animal flesh is saturated with these excrements of the cells in the form of uric acid and many other kinds of acids, alkaloids of putrefaction, xanthines, ptomaines, etc.
The processes of decay of these tumor materials liberate large quantities of alkaloids of putrefaction, and these, in turn, stimulate the normal, healthy cells with which they come in contact to rapid, abnormal multiplication.
When exceedingly small quantities are dealt with the microscope is of use, and the plan of subliming alkaloids and examining their crystals under the microscope, introduced by Guy and Helwig, will be found very useful.
This substance seems to act in a great measure mechanically, but it has also a power of absorbing alkaloids which may render it useful.
Others of the opium alkaloids are poisonous; but instances of poisoning by their means have not occurred, except one doubtful instance of poisoning by narcotine, recorded by Sonnenschein.
When the substances looked for are volatile, distillation may be employed to secure them in a state of purity; in this way prussic acid is separated; but in the case of the poisonous alkaloids other means must be adopted.
Martian alkaloids were tricky things, and bracky smoke contained a number of them.
It has alkaloids no more harmful than nicotine," Feldman stated sharply.
Most of the alkaloids contain asymmetric carbon atoms and are, therefore, optically active, usually levorotatory, although a few are dextrorotatory.
Some authorities prefer to regard the alkaloids as waste-products of protein metabolism; but here, again, it is difficult to understand why such products should result in certain species of plants and not in others.
As a rule, alkaloids are colorless, crystalline solids, although a few are liquids at ordinary temperatures.
Alkaloids are usually odorless; although nicotine, coniine, and a few others, have strong, characteristic odors.
The composition and properties of the individual alkaloids have been extensively studied, because of their medicinal uses.
The alkaloids produce a disease known as ciguatera, characterized by paralysis and gastric derangements.
Poisonous bacteria may be destroyed by cooking, but the alkaloids which cause ciguatera are unaltered by heat.
The purpose of the alkaloids producing ciguatera is considered by Dr.
In many species otherwise innocuous, purgative alkaloids are developed in or about the eggs.
These alkaloids are most developed in the ovaries and testes, and in the spawning season.
But the pleasurable effects of tobacco are derived in great part from the volatile alkaloids formed during combustion.
That bromine-water precipitates several volatile and fixed alkaloids from their solutions is no objection to the bromine test, for it may be applied to a distillation product, the bases having been previously fixed by sulphuric acid.
Opium-smoking is another form in which the drug is used, but it is an open question as to what poisonous alkaloids are in opium smoke.
A method of separating alkaloids from an ethereal solution has been proposed by Selmi.
Iodine dissolved in a solution of potassic iodide= gives with alkaloids a reddish or red-brown precipitate, and this in perhaps a greater dilution than almost any reagent.
Some of these alkaloids exist in very small proportion, and have been little studied.
One of the most convenient of these is titration with normal or decinormal sulphuric acid, a method applicable to a few alkaloids of marked basic powers--e.
To test the possibility of these alkaloids obscuring each other's reactions, mixtures of 3 per cent.
It is remarkable that amongst nearly all nations, either alcohol in some form or one of the stronger alkaloids is in common use.
Many of thealkaloids are used in medicine, some of the more important ones being given below.
These alkaloids are allied, chemically, to strychnine, morphine, etc.
A quantity of one of these alkaloids (occasionally found in tinned sardines), which is so small as to be almost impossible to demonstrate, has killed a whole family in twenty-four hours.
Tannin may be given internally in doses of one-half dram twice daily for a few days to neutralize the unabsorbed alkaloids of the ergot.
Although formed originally within the plant, it has been found possible to prepare several of these alkaloids by artificial means.
Most natural alkaloids contain carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen, but a few contain no oxygen.
Most alkaloids occur in plants, but some are formed by decomposition.
On the other hand, according to Livon,(54) young guinea pigs are more sensitive to alkaloids than adults.
It has been proposed to precipitate the original spirituous extract by neutral or basic acetate of lead, which throws down many impurities, but leaves the alkaloids in solution.
There is a test distinguishing these cadaveric alkaloids from all natural alkaloids, except morphia and veratria, and certainly from aconitia.
In his speech for the defence, Mr. Montagu Williams referred to the supposed existence of cadaveric alkaloids or ptomaines, and to the absence of special chemical tests for aconitia.
The reactions of the other alkaloids will be found in Blyth’s Practical Chemistry.
If no crystals are found, strychnia and most other alkaloids are unlikely to be present.
I have 50 or 80 alkaloids in my possession, and I have tasted most of them.
There are some alkaloids of a peppery taste; these are irritants, and are not common as poisons.
All the general reagents for alkaloids precipitate strychnia.
All alkaloids form with platinic chloride double salts of more or less sparing solubility.
In order to avoid repetition, the mode of preparing the general reagents for alkaloidswill be given here.
Physiologically, alkaloids as a class have a powerful action on the human and animal frame.
Of all the dangers to be met with in superstitious countries, these mydratic alkaloids are among the worst.
As we entered he was verifying his experiments and checking over his results, carefully endeavouring to isolate any of the other closely related mydriatic alkaloids that might be contained in the noxious fumes of the poisoned tobacco.
Reference should also be made to the articles on the individual alkaloids for further details as to their medicinal and chemical properties.
Konigs, expressed the opinion that the alkaloids were derivatives of pyridine or quinoline.
Biddle wiih the title The Vegetable Alkaloids (New Vork, 1904); and by J.
This view has been fairly well supported by later discoveries; but, in addition to pyridine and quinoline nuclei, alkaloids derived from isoquinoline are known.
The chemistry of the alkaloids is treated in detail by Ame Pictet in his La Constitution chimique des alcatoides vegetaux (Paris, 1897); enlarged and translated by H.
Other related alkaloids are lycaconitine and myoctonine which occur in wolfsbane, Aconitum lycoctonum.
Hydrolysis gives acetic acid and benzaconine, the chief constituent of the alkaloids picraconitine and napelline; further hydrolysis gives aconine.
A chemical classification of alkaloids is difficult on account of their complex constitution.
The following classification is simple and convenient; the list of alkaloids makes no pretence at being exhaustive.
Here are no excruciating condiments, no special acridities, no alkaloids fatal to any stomach other than that of the appointed consumer; so that animal food is not confined to one and the same eater.
And it is not only larvae whose food is strongly spiced with alkaloids and other poisonous substances that refuse any innovation in their food; the others, even those whose diet is least juicy, are invincibly uncompromising.
Cocoa as a beverage has a similar action to tea and coffee, inasmuch as the physiological properties of all three are due to the alkaloids and volatile oils they contain.
Among the most complex alkaloids are those of the quinine group.
Alkaloids have been found in fungi, and owe their presence doubtless to the richness of these plants in nitrogenous bodies.
It is noteworthy that the synthesis of the alkaloids has led to some of the most brilliant discoveries of the present day, especially in the discovery of dye stuffs.
The alkaloids of the fungus have already been noted.
In the note on the constitution of alkaloids in a recent issue, we referred more especially to what we may term the less highly organized bases.
It so happens that the oldest alkaloids are in these groups.
Among the greater number of plant families, noalkaloids have been found.
Most of our knowledge, as we now have it, regarding such alkaloids as muscarine and choline has been acquired during the past dozen years.
The opium alkaloidsare not absorbed to any appreciable extent through the unbroken skin.
Glycerite of pepsin (20%) and elixir of cinchona alkaloids and iron.
Oleates are combinations ofalkaloids or metallic oxids with oleic acid or with mixtures of oleic acid with a fixed oil.
Incompatible with soluble carbonates and hydroxides, with iodides and with alkaloids and other organic compounds.
It is ineffective for external or local application, because the opium alkaloids are not absorbed to any appreciable extent through the unbroken skin.
The above list will hopefully give you a few useful examples demonstrating the appropriate usage of "alkaloids" in a variety of sentences. We hope that you will now be able to make sentences using this word.