The production of esters, as mentioned in Chapters IX and X, of various alcohols and aldehydes are activities which are sometimes of value in the study of bacteria, but need not be further discussed.
They react with the zinc alkyls to form addition products, which are decomposed by water with formation of secondary alcohols (K.
Tertiary alcohols yield neither aldehydes nor ketones, but a mixture of two or more acids.
In 1860 Hermann Kolbe predicted the existence of secondary and tertiary alcoholsfrom theoretical considerations.
The other amyl alcohols may be obtained synthetically.
Tertiary alcohols are thus seen to be characterized by the group :C.
Furthermore, he exhibited a comparison between these three types of alcohols and the amines.
The haloid esters of the paraffin alcohols formed by heating the alcohols with the halogen acids are the monohaloid derivatives of the paraffins, and are more conveniently prepared by the action of the phosphorous haloid on the alcohol.
Ketones, secondary alcohols and tertiary alcohols yield a mixture of acids on oxidation.
The normal alcohols containing 1 to 16 carbon atoms are liquids at the ordinary temperatures; the higher members are crystalline, odourless and tasteless solids, closely resembling the fats in appearance.
The alcohols are neutral in reaction, and the lower members possess the property of entering into combination with salts, in which the alcohol plays the role of water of crystallization.
The physical properties of the alcohols exhibit a gradation with the increase of molecular weight.
The mixed secondary amines are prepared by the action of alkyl iodides on the primary amines, or by heating salts of the primary amine with alcohols under pressure.
The boiling points of the normal alcohols increase regularly about 10 deg.
Tertiary alcohols may be synthesized by a method devised by A.
This suggestive fact at once directed his attention to the problem of the origin of the amyl alcohols in alcoholic fermentation.
The intermediate production of an aldehyde would thus be consistent both with the production of alcohols and acids from amino-acids.
Carboxylase undoubtedly effects one stage in the production of alcoholsfrom amino-acids, whether it is also the agent by which one stage in the alcoholic fermentation of sugar is brought about still remains to be proved.
Condensation of Phenols Condensation of Hydroxybenzene Condensation of Dihydroxybenzene Trihydroxy benzene Polyhydroxybenzenes Quinone Phenolic Ethers Nitro Bodies Amino Bodies Aromatic Alcohols Aromatic Acids 3.
Similarly, halogenated compounds and alcohols react with concentrated or fuming sulphuric acid forming sulphonic and hydrosulphonic acids respectively.
Especially interesting appears the fact of plants utilising sugars for the esterification of acids, just as glycerol or monohydric alcohols may be employed for the same purpose.
The aromatic dihydric alcohols are easily condensed with the different sulphonic acids and yield valuable tanning matters.
The experience gained by the methyl glucosides makes it exceedingly probable that the simpler polyhydric alcohols also are suitable substances to employ in these syntheses; as a matter of fact, glycerol has been condensed with gallic acid.
A great many alcohols are known, and, like the hydrocarbons, they may be grouped into series.
According to Neubauer,(64) the primary and secondary alcohols are so combined in the dog as well as in the rabbit, but to a greater degree in the latter.
According to Thierfelder and Von Mering,(84) tertiary alcoholsare combined in this manner in the rabbit but not in the dog.
Observations on the fate of some of the alcohols of the fatty acid series have likewise shown that these substances may be combined with glycuronic acid in some animals but not in others.
Thanks to this powerful factor, which is manageable at will, we can take directly from the apparatus alcohols marking 98 and 99 degrees by the centigrade alcoholmeter.
The alcohols obtained are wholesome, and can be put on the market without danger.
Their superior quality gives these alcohols an extra value difficult to calculate, but which is very notable.
The following is the industrial application that we have endeavored to make of these theoretical views: The rectification of alcohols is one of the most complex of operations; it looks toward several results simultaneously.
Hence the large expenses attending rectification, which produce fine alcoholsnecessarily at an elevated price.
Santalol, the alcohol or mixture of alcohols obtained from sandalwood oil.
The percentage of combined alcohols can be calculated from the amount of ester found, and by subtracting this from the percentage of total alcohols, that of the free alcohols is obtained.
This process gives accurate results with geraniol, borneol, and menthol, but with linalol and terpineol the figures obtained are only comparative, a considerable quantity of these alcohols being decomposed during the acetylation.
Solid alcohols occur naturally in sperm oil, but hydrocarbons, which may be generally recognised by the fluorescence or bloom they give to the oil, are not natural constituents of animal or vegetable oils and fats.
The alcohols are estimated by conversion into their acetic esters, which are then saponified with standard alcoholic potash, thereby furnishing a measure of the amount of alcohol esterified.
Of the alcoholsgiven in the above table only two concern the ordinary distiller, or producer of alcohol for general use in the arts.
With a little practice this test enables one to distinguish by their flavor the primal origin of alcohols and to judge of their purity.
In order to buy these specially de-natured alcohols it is necessary, of course, to obtain a permit first from your Collector of Internal Revenue, a simple permit to use de-natured alcohol will not suffice.
Take throughalcohols of increasing strength up to absolute, keeping in each strength for twenty-four hours.
This is effected by passing the tissue successively through alcohols of gradually increasing strength: 30 per cent.
One of a class of compounds formed from certain polybasic alcohols (and especially glycerin) by the substitution of chlorine for one or more hydroxyl groups.
These higher alcohols are more intoxicating and more harmful to the human system than ethyl alcohol, and must be separated from the latter by careful distillation.
In the fermentation of grains or fruits for intoxicating liquors, a small quantity of the various higher alcoholsis formed.
All organic acids are compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, the same as alcohols and ethers, the chief difference between these compounds and acids being that the acids contain a greater proportion of oxygen.
In fact they are formed from alcohols by a process of oxidation, hence contain a little larger proportion of oxygen than the related alcohol.
The thermal effects increase as one passes from primary to tertiary alcohols, the values deduced from propyl and isopropyl alcohols and trimethyl carbinol being:--primary = 45.
These compounds may be regarded as oxides in just the same way as the alcohols are regarded as hydroxides.
For a similar reason secondary alcohols boil at a lower temperature than the corresponding primary, the difference being about 19 deg.
It was found that the normal primary alcohols were all esterified at about the same rate, the secondary alcohols more slowly than the primary, and the tertiary alcohols still more slowly.
Nitric acid and chromic acid oxidize them in such a mariner that they yield the same products as the alcohols from which they are derived.
Saint-Gilles on the formation of the ethereal salts RX from the alcohols ROH and acids HX, when water is also formed.
Ethereal salts, therefore, present a likeness to metallic salts, just asalcohols resemble basic hydroxides.
In this sense the reaction between alcoholsand acids is much more simple, and therefore its significance in confirmation of Berthollet's doctrine is of particular importance.
All alcohols are capable of forming water and ethereal salts with acids, just as alkalis form ordinary salts.
For the present, however, the extraction of proto-paraffine on a large scale by means of such solvents as amyl and ethyl alcohols is out of the question on account of their cost.
The most characteristic and well developed crystals are formed by dissolving paraffine in a mixture of ethyl and amyl alcohols and chilling.
One of the higher alcohols of the methane series, homologous with ethal, and found in small quantities as an ethereal salt of stearic acid in spermaceti.
The amylic alcohols are identical in their chemical composition, but differ in certain physical properties, primary amylic alcohol boiling at 137 deg.
According to Rabuteau the toxic properties of the higher alcohols increase with their molecular weight and boiling point.
Pure ethyl alcohol intoxication, indeed, is rarely seen, being modified in the case of spirits by the higher alcohols contained in fusel oil.
This is said to be due to the fact that certain of the component atoms, notably the carbon atoms, take a fourth dimensional position in the compound and thus produce the unusual spectacle of eight alcohols from one formula.
Alcohols have also ionizing power; methyl or wood alcohol, which stands nearest to water, has a higher ionizing power than ordinary ethyl alcohol.
The finding of polybasicity was extended to other acids and formed the model that helped to recognize the polyfunctionality in other compounds, like alcohols and amines.
Long before he wrote, it was known that phosphoric acid combines not only with inorganic bases to form salts, but with alcohols to form esters.
They are similar to fats in chemical composition, except that, instead of being glycerides, they are esters of monohydric alcohols of high atomic weight.
As has been pointed out, esters are derived from organic acids and alcohols in exactly the same way that mineral salts are derived from inorganic acids and metallic bases.
All fats, when saponified, yield soaps and either glycerol or (more rarely) some of the other alcohols which are described below.
The structure of the two typical closed-ring alcohols which are present in these glucosides is indicated by the following formulas; Coniferyl alcohol Saligenin CH=CH.
The above list will hopefully give you a few useful examples demonstrating the appropriate usage of "alcohols" in a variety of sentences. We hope that you will now be able to make sentences using this word.