When a quantity of the same color is desired, the same water can be used again by adding acid and Glauber salts, together with more dyestuff with each fresh dip of cloth.
The artificial dyestuff being perfectly pure and free from those contaminations which render the use of madder difficult, it soon was preferred to the latter, which it has at present nearly completely displaced.
In 1869, two German chemists, Graebe and Liebermann, succeeded in artificially producing this dyestuff from anthracene, a component of coal-tar.
Defn: The leaves of the henna plant, or a preparation or dyestuff made from them.
Defn: A yellow dyestuff extracted from the root bark of an East Indian plant (Morinda citrifolia).
Defn: Pertaining to, or designating, a complex red dyestuff (called rosolic acid) which is analogous to rosaniline and aurin.
Defn: A dyestuff of the induline group, made from aniline, and used as a substitute for indigo in dyeing wool and silk a violet-blue or a gray-blue color.
Defn: An artificial red or violet dyestuff consisting of a complex sulphur derivative of certain aromatic diamines, and obtained as a dark crystalline powder; -- called also phenylene violet.
French purple, a dyestuff obtained from lichens and used for coloring woolen and silken fabrics, without the aid of mordants.
Defn: A phenol derivative of anthracene obtained as a white crystalline substance, which on oxidation produces a red dyestuffrelated to anthraquinone.
Defn: An orange-red nitrogenousdyestuff produced artificailly by oxidizing certain aniline derivatives, and used in dyeing silk and wool; also, any one of the series of which safranine proper is the type.
Defn: A red or violet dyestuff having a greenish metallic luster.
Defn: A yellow dyestuff obtained from the foliage of the dyer's broom (Reseda luteola).
On simply warming this mixture, the violet dyestuff is produced in about a minute.
But let us take the printed piece of cotton and dye that in the Alizarin bath, and then we shall discover the conditions for producing colours with such a dyestuff as madder or Alizarin.
The Artificial Mordant Colours are well represented by alizarin, the colouring matter of the madder root, which was the first natural dyestuff prepared artificially from the coal-tar product anthracene (1868).
There is still another method of applying Mordant Colours in wool-dyeing, in which the dyestuff and the mordant are applied simultaneously from the beginning; it is known as the "single-bath method.
The boxes may contain the same or different liquors, according to the nature of the dyestuff employed.
It is usual to add also a small amount of the yellow dyestuff flavine in order to obtain a yellower shade of scarlet.
Alizarin Blue is a dark blue dyestuff which, owing to the fastness of the colours it yields, has for many years been regarded as a worthy substitute for indigo in wool-dyeing.
The dyestuff Cachou de Laval, discovered in 1873, was the first member of this group, and was obtained by melting a mixture of sodium sulphide and various organic substances--e.
The high price of this dyestuff causes its employment to be somewhat limited.
The primuline colours were the first representatives of this class and are derived from the yellow dyestuff known as primuline, which dyes cotton in the same manner as the direct colours.
Prussian Blue as applied to wool may also be regarded as belonging to this class, also the purple dyestuff known as Orchil or Cudbear.
It is interesting to note that only one vegetable colouring matter is at present recognized as belonging to this class, namely, the yellow dyestuff barberry bark and root (Berberis vulgaris) which contains the alkaloid berberine.
The dyestuff thus gave its name to the country from which it was afterwards principally obtained.
The use of madder as a red dyestuff dates from very early times.
Thus in a contract between the cities of Bologna and Ferrara, in 1194, the dyestuff kermez is referred to as grana de Brazile and Brazil wood, both dyestuffs at that time being obtained from India.
Its employment as a dyestuff is known to be of great antiquity, antedating considerably the discovery of South America.
Its value as a dyestuffdepends on its power of forming insoluble compounds (lakes) with metallic oxides.
Phenyl-acridine is the parent base of chrysaniline, which is the chief constituent of the dyestuff phosphine (a bye-product in the manufacture of rosaniline).
There were several stages of preparation; but the final dyestuff was a sort of meal or coarse flour of a reddish colour.
The dyestuff for black was a sediment or deposit of an intense black found at the bottom of pools in bogs.
By 1904 two immense combinations had been formed in the dyestuff industry.
S / \ S / The new dyestuff is therefore analogous to indigotine, from which it differs by having the imino groups replaced by sulphur atoms.
Baeyer was the production of the dyestuff from ortho-nitrophenylpropiolic acid (see Propiolic Acid), which yields indigotine on being treated with caustic soda and a reducing agent such as grape sugar or xanthate of soda.
Art can go ahead of nature in the dyestuff business.
The addresses delivered during the war on "The Aniline Color, Dyestuff and Chemical Conditions," by I.
Alliances have already been made in great industries, such as the dyestuff industry, in preparation for a sudden and sustained attack upon that new industry in America.
The dyestuff and other chemical manufacturers are getting quite scared about possible American competition.
The profits of the German dyestuff "trust" are certainly great enough to tempt the trust to do anything to keep the monopoly.
Aniline Black is the name given to an insoluble black dyestuff produced by the oxidation of aniline in an acid medium.
Moreover, textiles are dyed at, or near the boil, the dyestuff being more uniformly and permanently taken up from solution by the fibre at elevated temperatures.
Our efforts to establish an independent dyestuff industry were doomed to failure, according to those who circulated the stories, because we did not have the water, which they claimed was responsible for the German success.
The additions of dyestuff to baths must be made so small that they do not affect a coloring of the feathers but only a faint tinting.
These additions require good judgment, because too much dyestuff added would cause an abrupt, dull contrast instead of a desirable gradual shaking off, or transition from one shade to the other.
Each time, after a shade has been dyed to the required depth, the feathers are rinsed in cold water and some more dyestuff solution added to the bath.
Instead of acid violet indigo carmine may be used; in this case, however, as the dyestuff runs up slowly and difficultly, work at 170 deg.
Instead of archil, any red or orange azo dyestuff may be used, preferably bordeaux.
Then sample and correct, if necessary, by adding moredyestuff solution.
According to the proportionally greater or smaller quantity of either dyestuff added to the dyebath either browns are obtained, or olives, Russia green, reseda, or a variety of modes.
There ought only a little more dyestuff be added each time, than has been absorbed from the bath by dyeing the preceding shade.
Add the dyestuffs in small quantities gradually, making the additions only when the dyestuff of the bath has been completely absorbed, and then by drops so as to be able to correct the color without waste of dyestuff.
A phenol derivative of anthracene obtained as a white crystalline substance, which on oxidation produces a red dyestuff related to anthraquinone.
In the case of yarn-dyed fabrics the dyestuff has penetrated through the yarn, while in the case of piece-dyed fabrics the dyestuff has no chance to penetrate as completely as the yarn-dyed fabric.
Which sample has absorbed the greatest amount of dyestuff from the liquid?
There are a number of dyestuff makers in Europe who put vat colors on the market, but they all call them by different names.
Directions Unravel threads of the suspected sample, and with a blade of pen knife note whether the dyestuff has penetrated through the yarn as noted by the depth of color in the interior of the yarn.
In another method the warp is dyed and woven with a white wool or worsted filling, and dyed in the piece with a dyestuff that will not affect the cotton.
Then wash the dyed fabric and notice whether the dyestuff washes off or not.
Then again in the case of thick, closely woven goods the dyestuff does not penetrate into the fabric, and the interior remains nearly white.
Then wash the dyed silk and notice whether the dyestuff washes off or not.
Slubbing dyeing is preferred to yarn dyeing, for the dyestuff penetrates the loosely twisted roving, and if unevenly dyed, the subsequent operations equalize most thoroughly the irregularities in color.
A mordant is a substance which has an affinity for, or which can penetrate, the fiber to be colored, and which possesses the power of combining with the dyestuff and thus forming an insoluble compound upon the fiber.
If the dyestuff has penetrated into the interior of the thread, it is not printed.
Under the deep-furrowed, brown surface bark is a yellow layer, rich in tannin, and a dyestuff called quercitron.